This study investigated factors associated with low and high levels of achievement in mathematics. Chinese, Japanese, and American first- and fifth-grade children who received scores in the top or bottom deciles of a mathematics test were given tests of intellectual ability and reading achievement, and the children and their mothers were interviewed. There were large overall differences in the mean level of mathematics achievement among the three locations. High mathematics achievers in all three locations received higher average scores on the intellectual ability tests than did the average mathematics achievers, who in turn received higher scores than low-achievers. In all three locations, mothers' ratings of their children's intellectual abilities and of their own abilities in mathematics varied directly with the children's level of achievement in mathematics. Taken together, the results indicate that factors associated with levels of achievement in mathematics operate in a similar fashion across three cultures that differ greatly in their children's level of mathematics achievement.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Life-span and Life-course Studies