Low energy electron diffraction and electron spectroscopy studies of the clean (110) and (100) titanium dioxide (rutile) crystal surfaces

Y. W. Chung*, W. J. Lo, G. A. Somorjai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

311 Scopus citations


Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), electron energy loss (ELS) and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopies (UPS) were used to study the structures, compositions and electron state distributions of clean single crystal faces of titanium dioxide (rutile). LEED showed that both the (110) and (100) surfaces are stable, the latter giving rise to three distinct surface structures, viz. (1 × 3), (1 × 5) and (1 × 7) that were obtained by annealing an argon ion-bombarded (100) surface at ~600,800 and 1200° C respectively. AES showed the decrease of the O(510 eV) Ti(380 eV) peak ratio from ~1.7 to ~1.3 in going from the (1 × 3) to the (1 × 7) surface structure. Electron energy loss spectra obtained from the (110) and (100)-(1 × 3) surfaces are similar, with surface-sensitive transitions at 8.2, 5.2 and 2.4 eV. The energy loss spectrum from an argon or oxygen ion bombarded surface is dominated by the transition at 1.6 eV. UPS indicated that the initial state for this ELS transition is peaked at -0.6 eV (referred to the Fermi level EF in the photoemission spectrum, and that the 2.4 eV surface-sensitive ELS transition probably arises from the band of occupied states between the bulk valence band maximum to the Fermi level. High energy electron beams (1.6 keV 20 μA) used in AES were found to disorder clean and initially well-ordered TiO2 surfaces. Argon ion bombardment of clean ordered TiO2 (110) and (100)-(1 × 3) surfaces caused the work function and surface band bending to decrease by almost 1 eV and such decrease is explained as due to the loss of oxygen from the surface.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)588-602
Number of pages15
JournalSurface Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1977

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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