Lung Protective Effects of Low-Volume Resuscitation and Pharmacologic Treatment of Swine Subjected to Polytrauma and Hemorrhagic Shock

Vahagn C. Nikolian, Baihong Pan, Tomaz Mesar, Isabel S. Dennahy, Patrick E. Georgoff, Xiuzhen Duan, Baoling Liu, Xizi Wu, Michael J. Duggan, Hasan B. Alam, Yongqing Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Hemorrhage is a common cause of death in the battlefield. Valproic acid (VPA) has been associated with improved outcomes in multiple models of trauma, when combined with isotonic fluid resuscitation. However, isotonic fluid administered in this setting is logistically impractical and may be associated with complications. In this study, we sought to evaluate the feasibility and immunologic impact of combining VPA treatment with low-volume hypertonic saline (HTS). In vivo: female Yorkshire swine were subjected to hemorrhage (40% total blood volume) and polytrauma (rib fracture and delayed liver injury). Animals were kept in shock for 30 minutes and resuscitated with (1) normal saline (NS, 3× hemorrhaged volume), (2) HTS (7.5% saline, 4 mL/kg), or (3) HTS + VPA (4 mg/kg; 150 mg/kg; n = 3/cohort). After 18 hours of observation, animals were euthanized and the lungs evaluated for acute injury and expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). In vitro: human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to anoxic conditions (5% CO2, 95% N2) for 16 hours in (1) normosmotic, (2) hyperosmotic (400 mOsm), or (3) hyperosmotic + VPA (4 mM) media. Immunohistochemistry and Western blots were performed to determine Cav-1 expression. Lungs from VPA-treated animals demonstrated decreased acute injury, MPO expression, and endothelial expression of Cav-1 when compared to lungs from animals resuscitated with NS or HTS alone. Similarly, HUVECs cultured in hyperosmotic media containing VPA demonstrated decreased expression of Cav-1. This study demonstrates that combined treatment with VPA and HTS is a viable strategy in hemorrhagic shock and polytrauma. Attenuation of lung injury following VPA treatment may be related to modulation of the inflammatory response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1264-1274
Number of pages11
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • acute lung injury
  • hemorrhagic shock
  • hypertonic saline
  • inflammation
  • resuscitation
  • valproic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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