Machine-agnostic energy density model for laser, powder-blown directed energy deposition

Samantha Webster*, Jihoon Jeong, Shuheng Liao, Jian Cao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Due to a lack of standardization of process parameters, experimental results from different laser powder-blown directed energy deposition (DED) machines can be difficult to compare or repeat. A specific energy density model is presented that can describe the deposited clad geometry and can guide the choice of initial process parameters instead of using the typical guess-and-check method. Single clads built using a wide variety of process parameters are used to validate the model, and a comparison is made between data sets from two different machines. Two power laws are established that relate the clad shape and dilution state to specific energy density. This work ultimately enables the determination of the low bound of process parameters for a successful DED build using analytical equations and known material properties, the proper translation of process parameters between machines on which experimental results are collected, and the establishment of a theoretical base for process control of clad structure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11-19
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Processes
StatePublished - Aug 25 2023


  • Directed energy deposition
  • Powder-blown
  • Specific energy density

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Strategy and Management
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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