Major discrepancy between factual antibiotic resistance and consumption in South of France: analysis of 539,037 bacterial strains

Ousmane Oumou Diallo, Sophie Alexandra Baron, Gregory Dubourg, Hervé Chaudet, Philippe Halfon, Sabine Camiade, Béatrice Comte, Stéphanie Joubert, Arnaud François, Philippe Seyral, François Parisot, Jean Paul Casalta, Raymond Ruimy, Christophe Maruejouls, Jean Christophe Achiardy, Sophie Burignat, Joseph Carvajal, Edouard Delaunay, Sandra Meyer, Pierre Yves LevyPatricia Roussellier, Patrick Brunet, Claude Bosi, Philippe Stolidi, Jean Pierre Arzouni, Gisele Gay, Pierre Hance, Philippe Colson, Didier Raoult*, Jean Marc Rolain

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The burden of antibiotic resistance is currently estimated by mathematical modeling, without real count of resistance to key antibiotics. Here we report the real rate of resistance to key antibiotics in bacteria isolated from humans during a 5 years period in a large area in southeast in France. We conducted a retrospective study on antibiotic susceptibility of 539,107 clinical strains isolated from hospital and private laboratories in south of France area from January 2014 to January 2019. The resistance rate to key antibiotics as well as the proportion of bacteria classified as Difficult-to-Treat (DTR) were determined and compared with the Mann–Whitney U test, the χ2 test or the Fisher’s exact test. Among 539,037 isolates, we did not observe any significant increase or decrease in resistance to key antibiotics for 5 years, (oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem resistance in enterobacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 3rd generation cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae). However, we observed a significant decrease in imipenem resistance for Acinetobacter baumannii from 2014 to 2018 (24.19–12.27%; p = 0.005) and a significant increase of ceftriaxone resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.9–24.03%; p = 0.001) and Enterobacter cloacae (24.05–42.05%; p = 0.004). Of these 539,037 isolates, 1604 (0.3%) had a DTR phenotype. Over a 5-year period, we did not observe a burden of AR in our region despite a high rate of antibiotic consumption in our country. These results highlight the need for implementation of real-time AR surveillance systems which use factual data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number18262
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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