Psoriasis is a common inflammatory cutaneous disease that affects approximately 120 million people worldwide. Systemic treatments have significantly improved disease burden, but concerns persist regarding their association with increased risk of malignancy. Patients with psoriasis have a slightly elevated baseline risk of lymphoproliferative diseases. Studies on methotrexate and cyclosporine, as well as older biological agents such as tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, have found no increased risk of non-cutaneous solid tumors; however, positive associations between cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and certain therapies have been found. There is conflicting evidence regarding the risk of lymphoma and melanoma. Further studies are needed to determine the long-term safety of newer psoriasis treatments (interleukin [IL]-12/23, IL-17, Janus kinase 1/3, and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors), specifically their safety in patients with a history of cancer. This review summarizes the most recent studies on malignancy risk from psoriasis, and its treatments in patients and cancer survivors, with the highest available level of evidence.
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