Management of Enthesitis in Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis: An Updated Literature Review Informing the 2021 GRAPPA Treatment Recommendations

Lihi Eder, Ashish J. Mathew, Philippe Carron, Heidi Bertheussen, Juan D. Cañete, May Azem, Andrea Delle Sedie, Carlo Salvarani, Roberto Ranza, Ashley Elliott, Anthony Turkiewicz, Ricardo Acayaba de Toledo, Hulya Bukulmez, Maria S. Stoenoiu, Arthur M. Mandelin, Michaela Koehm, Chris A. Lindsay, Evan Siegel, Philip J. Mease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective. Enthesitis is a key pathological and clinical feature of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in children and adults. Enthesitis is typically assessed clinically using several validated enthesitis scoring systems that have been used in clinical trials. Enthesitis treatment response has been reported as change in the total enthesitis score or the proportion of patients who achieved complete resolution. The majority of trials in PsA did not require patients to have enthesitis at study entry since enthesitis was evaluated only as a secondary outcome. Despite the inherent limitations of the clinical assessment of enthesitis, imaging of the entheses using ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging has rarely been used in clinical trials to assess response to treatment of enthesitis. This systematic review summarizes existing evidence regarding pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical interventions for enthesitis in patients with PsA to facilitate an evidence-based update of the Group for Research and Assessment in Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) treatment recommendations for PsA. Methods. We performed a systematic literature review to identify 41 randomized clinical trials that reported enthesitis treatment response in patients with PsA. For each intervention, the response effect size was summarized and the quality of evidence was graded. Recommendations were then formulated for the various pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies. Results. We included 41 randomized clinical trials in our review and graded each intervention. Conclusion. Several classes of systemic conventional and advanced therapies and local measures were recommended for active enthesitis in patients with PsA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)258-264
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Rheumatology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2023


  • psoriasis
  • psoriatic arthritis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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