Management of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated with COVID-19 Infection

Pei Ni Jone*, Melanie D. Everitt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to summarize what is known about multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 infection. Recent findings: The timing of presentation and features of diagnosis are described. Cardiac involvement is common and is the focus of this review. Arrhythmias, heart block, acute heart failure, shock, cardiac dysfunction, and coronary dilation have all been reported. Therapies used to treat children with this hyperinflammation syndrome include supportive care and agents that modulate the immune system. Therapies commonly described include intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and cytokine-directed agents, particularly tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade and interleukin receptor blockade. The threshold for diagnosing coronary involvement in MIS-C is coronary artery dimensions indexed to body surface that exceed the normative values (Z score >2). Those hospitalized with MIS-C are evaluated by electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; outpatient assessment by a cardiologist is indicated prior to sports clearance. Summary: The prognosis of treated MIS-C patients is good. Future work is needed to understand the scope of cardiac involvement associated with acute COVID-19 and MIS-C in children and to define the optimal therapeutic targets for these distinct entities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)119-128
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Treatment Options in Pediatrics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • COVID-19
  • Coronary dilation
  • Coronavirus
  • Kawasaki disease
  • Multisystem inflammatory syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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