Purpose: Management of undescended testes (UDT) has evolved over the last decade. While urologic societies in the United States and Europe have established some guidelines for care, management by North American pediatric surgeons remains variable. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the published evidence regarding the treatment of (UDT) in children. Methods: A comprehensive search strategy and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were utilized to identify, review, and report salient articles. Five principal questions were asked regarding imaging standards, medical treatment, surgical technique, timing of operation, and outcomes. A literature search was performed from 2005 to 2020. Results: A total of 825 articles were identified in the initial search, and 260 were included in the final review. Conclusions: Pre-operative imaging and hormonal therapy are generally not recommended except in specific circumstances. Testicular growth and potential for fertility improves when orchiopexy is performed before one year of age. For a palpable testis, a single incision approach is preferred over a two-incision orchiopexy. Laparoscopic orchiopexy is associated with a slightly lower testicular atrophy rate but a higher rate of long-term testicular retraction. One and two-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy have similar rates of testicular atrophy and retraction. There is a higher relative risk of testicular cancer in UDT which may be lessened by pre-pubertal orchiopexy.
- Testicular cancer
- Undescended testis/testes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health