Manifestations of Hypoxia in the Second and Third Trimester Placenta

W. Tony Parks*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The placental pathologies that develop in the context of hypoxic insults to the fetus and placenta are termed maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM). On molecular analysis, these lesions primarily show evidence of oxidative damage, suggesting that they arise in the context of hypoxia-reperfusion injury. The earliest abnormalities are likely incomplete or absent remodeling of maternal spiral arteries (decidual arteriopathy). These vascular remodeling defects then lead to subsequent damage patterns, including accelerated villous maturation, distal villous hypoplasia, increased syncytial knots, villous infarction, retroplacental hemorrhage, and placental hypoplasia. MVM may occur in a surprisingly wide array of clinical disorders, but the relation between these clinical disorders and placental MVM is complex. It seems likely that these clinical disorders represent final common pathways for multiple etiologies, only some of which result in MVM. Birth Defects Research 109:1345–1357, 2017.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1345-1357
Number of pages13
JournalBirth Defects Research
Issue number17
StatePublished - Oct 16 2017


  • malperfusion
  • placenta
  • preeclampsia
  • uterine vessels

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Embryology
  • Toxicology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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