Mapping the functional anatomy of Orai1 transmembrane domains for CRAC channel gating

Priscilla S.W. Yeung, Megumi Yamashita, Christopher E. Ing, Régis Pomès, Douglas M. Freymann, Murali Prakriya*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Store-operated Orai1 channels are activated through a unique inside-out mechanism involving binding of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor STIM1 to cytoplasmic sites on Orai1. Although atomic-level details of Orai structure, including the pore and putative ligand binding domains, are resolved, how the gating signal is communicated to the pore and opens the gate is unknown. To address this issue, we used scanning mutagenesis to identify 15 residues in transmembrane domains (TMs) 1–4 whose perturbation activates Orai1 channels independently of STIM1. Cysteine accessibility analysis and molecular-dynamics simulations indicated that constitutive activation of the most robust variant, H134S, arises from a pore conformational change that opens a hydrophobic gate to augment pore hydration, similar to gating evoked by STIM1. Mutational analysis of this locus suggests that H134 acts as steric brake to stabilize the closed state of the channel. In addition, atomic packing analysis revealed distinct functional contacts between the TM1 pore helix and the surrounding TM2/3 helices, including one set mediated by a cluster of interdigitating hydrophobic residues and another by alternative ridges of polar and hydrophobic residues. Perturbing these contacts via mutagenesis destabilizes STIM1-mediated Orai1 channel gating, indicating that these bridges between TM1 and the surrounding TM2/3 ring are critical for conveying the gating signal to the pore. These findings help develop a framework for understanding the global conformational changes and allosteric interactions between topologically distinct domains that are essential for activation of Orai1 channels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E5193-E5202
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume115
Issue number22
DOIs
StatePublished - May 29 2018

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Mutagenesis
Anatomy
Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Cysteine
Ligands
Calcium Release Activated Calcium Channels

Keywords

  • CRAC channels
  • Calcium
  • Orai1
  • STIM1
  • Store-operated calcium entry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

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title = "Mapping the functional anatomy of Orai1 transmembrane domains for CRAC channel gating",
abstract = "Store-operated Orai1 channels are activated through a unique inside-out mechanism involving binding of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor STIM1 to cytoplasmic sites on Orai1. Although atomic-level details of Orai structure, including the pore and putative ligand binding domains, are resolved, how the gating signal is communicated to the pore and opens the gate is unknown. To address this issue, we used scanning mutagenesis to identify 15 residues in transmembrane domains (TMs) 1–4 whose perturbation activates Orai1 channels independently of STIM1. Cysteine accessibility analysis and molecular-dynamics simulations indicated that constitutive activation of the most robust variant, H134S, arises from a pore conformational change that opens a hydrophobic gate to augment pore hydration, similar to gating evoked by STIM1. Mutational analysis of this locus suggests that H134 acts as steric brake to stabilize the closed state of the channel. In addition, atomic packing analysis revealed distinct functional contacts between the TM1 pore helix and the surrounding TM2/3 helices, including one set mediated by a cluster of interdigitating hydrophobic residues and another by alternative ridges of polar and hydrophobic residues. Perturbing these contacts via mutagenesis destabilizes STIM1-mediated Orai1 channel gating, indicating that these bridges between TM1 and the surrounding TM2/3 ring are critical for conveying the gating signal to the pore. These findings help develop a framework for understanding the global conformational changes and allosteric interactions between topologically distinct domains that are essential for activation of Orai1 channels.",
keywords = "CRAC channels, Calcium, Orai1, STIM1, Store-operated calcium entry",
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Mapping the functional anatomy of Orai1 transmembrane domains for CRAC channel gating. / Yeung, Priscilla S.W.; Yamashita, Megumi; Ing, Christopher E.; Pomès, Régis; Freymann, Douglas M.; Prakriya, Murali.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 115, No. 22, 29.05.2018, p. E5193-E5202.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mapping the functional anatomy of Orai1 transmembrane domains for CRAC channel gating

AU - Yeung, Priscilla S.W.

AU - Yamashita, Megumi

AU - Ing, Christopher E.

AU - Pomès, Régis

AU - Freymann, Douglas M.

AU - Prakriya, Murali

PY - 2018/5/29

Y1 - 2018/5/29

N2 - Store-operated Orai1 channels are activated through a unique inside-out mechanism involving binding of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor STIM1 to cytoplasmic sites on Orai1. Although atomic-level details of Orai structure, including the pore and putative ligand binding domains, are resolved, how the gating signal is communicated to the pore and opens the gate is unknown. To address this issue, we used scanning mutagenesis to identify 15 residues in transmembrane domains (TMs) 1–4 whose perturbation activates Orai1 channels independently of STIM1. Cysteine accessibility analysis and molecular-dynamics simulations indicated that constitutive activation of the most robust variant, H134S, arises from a pore conformational change that opens a hydrophobic gate to augment pore hydration, similar to gating evoked by STIM1. Mutational analysis of this locus suggests that H134 acts as steric brake to stabilize the closed state of the channel. In addition, atomic packing analysis revealed distinct functional contacts between the TM1 pore helix and the surrounding TM2/3 helices, including one set mediated by a cluster of interdigitating hydrophobic residues and another by alternative ridges of polar and hydrophobic residues. Perturbing these contacts via mutagenesis destabilizes STIM1-mediated Orai1 channel gating, indicating that these bridges between TM1 and the surrounding TM2/3 ring are critical for conveying the gating signal to the pore. These findings help develop a framework for understanding the global conformational changes and allosteric interactions between topologically distinct domains that are essential for activation of Orai1 channels.

AB - Store-operated Orai1 channels are activated through a unique inside-out mechanism involving binding of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor STIM1 to cytoplasmic sites on Orai1. Although atomic-level details of Orai structure, including the pore and putative ligand binding domains, are resolved, how the gating signal is communicated to the pore and opens the gate is unknown. To address this issue, we used scanning mutagenesis to identify 15 residues in transmembrane domains (TMs) 1–4 whose perturbation activates Orai1 channels independently of STIM1. Cysteine accessibility analysis and molecular-dynamics simulations indicated that constitutive activation of the most robust variant, H134S, arises from a pore conformational change that opens a hydrophobic gate to augment pore hydration, similar to gating evoked by STIM1. Mutational analysis of this locus suggests that H134 acts as steric brake to stabilize the closed state of the channel. In addition, atomic packing analysis revealed distinct functional contacts between the TM1 pore helix and the surrounding TM2/3 helices, including one set mediated by a cluster of interdigitating hydrophobic residues and another by alternative ridges of polar and hydrophobic residues. Perturbing these contacts via mutagenesis destabilizes STIM1-mediated Orai1 channel gating, indicating that these bridges between TM1 and the surrounding TM2/3 ring are critical for conveying the gating signal to the pore. These findings help develop a framework for understanding the global conformational changes and allosteric interactions between topologically distinct domains that are essential for activation of Orai1 channels.

KW - CRAC channels

KW - Calcium

KW - Orai1

KW - STIM1

KW - Store-operated calcium entry

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