Maskless plasmonic lithography at 22 nm resolution

Liang Pan, Yongshik Park, Yi Xiong, Erick Ulin-Avila, Yuan Wang, Li Zeng, Shaomin Xiong, Junsuk Rho, Cheng Sun, David B. Bogy, Xiang Zhang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

132 Scopus citations


Optical imaging and photolithography promise broad applications in nano-electronics, metrologies, and single-molecule biology. Light diffraction however sets a fundamental limit on optical resolution, and it poses a critical challenge to the down-scaling of nano-scale manufacturing. Surface plasmons have been used to circumvent the diffraction limit as they have shorter wavelengths. However, this approach has a trade-off between resolution and energy efficiency that arises from the substantial momentum mismatch. Here we report a novel multi-stage scheme that is capable of efficiently compressing the optical energy at deep sub-wavelength scales through the progressive coupling of propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) and localized surface plasmons (LSPs). Combining this with airbearing surface technology, we demonstrate a plasmonic lithography with 22 nm half-pitch resolution at scanning speeds up to 10 m/s. This low-cost scheme has the potential of higher throughput than current photolithography, and it opens a new approach towards the next generation semiconductor manufacturing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number175
JournalScientific reports
StatePublished - Dec 1 2011


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Pan, L., Park, Y., Xiong, Y., Ulin-Avila, E., Wang, Y., Zeng, L., Xiong, S., Rho, J., Sun, C., Bogy, D. B., & Zhang, X. (2011). Maskless plasmonic lithography at 22 nm resolution. Scientific reports, 1, [175].