Mass Deployment of Deep Neural Network: Real-Time Proof of Concept With Screening of Intracranial Hemorrhage Using an Open Data Set

Benjamin S. Hopkins*, Nikhil K. Murthy, Pavlos Texakalidis, Constantine L. Karras, Mitchell Mansell, Babak S. Jahromi, Matthew B. Potts, Nader S. Dahdaleh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is considered an emergency that requires rapid medical or surgical management. Previous studies have used artificial intelligence to attempt to expedite the diagnosis of this pathology on neuroimaging. However, these studies have used local, institution-specific data for training of networks that limit deployment of across broader hospital networks or regions because of data biases. Objective: To demonstrate the creation of a neural network based on an openly available imaging data tested on data from our institution demonstrating a high-efficacy, institution-agnostic network. Methods: A data set was created from publicly available noncontrast computed tomography images of known ICH. These data were used to train a neural network using distinct windowing and augmentation. This network was then validated in 2 phases using cohort-based (phase 1) and longitudinal (phase 2) approaches. Results: Our convolutional neural network was trained on 752 807 openly available slices, which included 112 762 slices containing intracranial hemorrhage. In phase 1, the final network performance for intracranial hemorrhage showed a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.99. At the inflection point, our model showed a sensitivity of 98% at a threshold specificity of 99%. In phase 2, we obtained an AUC of 0.98 after analysis of 726 scans with a negative predictive value of 99.70% (n = 726). Conclusion: We demonstrate an effective neural network trained on completely open data for screening ICH at an unrelated institution. This study demonstrates a proof of concept for screening networks for multiple sites while maintaining high efficacy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)383-389
Number of pages7
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2022


  • CNN, Convolutional neural network
  • CT, Computed tomography
  • ICH, Intracranial hemorrhage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery


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