Maternal BMI, Peripheral Deiodinase Activity, and Plasma Glucose: Relationships between White Women in the HAPO Study

James E. Haddow*, Boyd E. Metzger, Geralyn Lambert-Messerlian, Elizabeth Eklund, Donald Coustan, Patrick Catalano, Glenn E. Palomaki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Objectives: Explore the maternal body mass index (BMI) relationship with peripheral deiodinase activity further. Examine associations between deiodinase activity, glucose, and C-peptide. Consider findings in the historical context of related existing literature. Design: Identify fasting plasma samples and selected demographic, biophysical, and biochemical data from a subset of 600 randomly selected non-Hispanic white women recruited in the Hyperglycemia Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study, all with glucose tolerance testing [545 samples sufficient to measure TSH, free T4 (fT4), and T3]. Exclude highest and lowest 1% TSH values (535 available for analysis). Assess deiodinase activity by using T3/fT4 ratios. Among women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), compare thyroid measurements, C-peptide, and other selected data. Examine relationships independent of GDM status between BMI and thyroid hormones and between thyroid hormones and glucose and C-peptide. Results: Levels of BMI, T3/fT4 ratio, and T3 were significantly higher among women with GDM (P = 0.01, 0.005, and 0.001, respectively). Irrespective of GDM status, maternal BMI was associated directly with both T3/fT4 ratio (r = 0.40, P , 0.001) and T3 (r = 0.34, P , 0.001) but inversely with fT4 (r = 20.21, P , 0.001). In turn, fasting thyroid hormone levels (most notably T3/fT4 ratio) were directly associated with maternal glucose [z score sum (fasting, 1, 2 hours); r = 0.24, P , 0.001] and with C-peptide [z score sum (fasting, 1 hour); r = 0.27, P , 0.001].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberjcem_201802328
Pages (from-to)2593-2600
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Issue number7
StatePublished - Mar 21 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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