Context: Gestational diabetes is associated with a long-term risk of developing a disorder of glucose metabolism. However, neither the metabolic changes characteristic of gestational diabetes in a large, multi-ancestry cohort nor the ability of metabolic changes during pregnancy, beyond glucose levels, to identify women at high risk for progression to a disorder of glucose metabolism has been examined. Objective: This work aims to identify circulating metabolites present at approximately 28 weeks' gestation associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and development of a disorder of glucose metabolism 10 to 14 years later. Methods: Conventional clinical and targeted metabolomics analyses were performed on fasting and 1-hour serum samples following a 75-g glucose load at approximately 28 weeks' gestation from 2290 women who participated in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study. Postpartum metabolic traits included fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose following a 75-g glucose load, insulin resistance estimated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and disorders of glucose metabolism (prediabetes and type 2 diabetes) during the HAPO Follow-Up Study. Results: Per-metabolite analyses identified numerous metabolites, ranging from amino acids and carbohydrates to fatty acids and lipids, before and 1-hour after a glucose load that were associated with GDM as well as development of a disorder of glucose metabolism and metabolic traits 10 to 14 years post partum. A core group of fasting and 1-hour metabolites mediated, in part, the relationship between GDM and postpartum disorders of glucose metabolism, with the fasting and 1-hour metabolites accounting for 15.7% (7.1%-30.8%) and 35.4% (14.3%-101.0%) of the total effect size, respectively. For prediction of a postpartum disorder of glucose metabolism, the addition of circulating fasting or 1-hour metabolites at approximately 28 weeks' gestation showed little improvement in prediction performance compared to clinical factors alone. Conclusion: The results demonstrate an association of multiple metabolites with GDM and postpartum metabolic traits and begin to define the underlying pathophysiology of the transition from GDM to a postpartum disorder of glucose metabolism.
- disorder of glucose metabolism
- gestational diabetes mellitus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical