Measures of resting state EEG rhythms for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations of an expert panel

Claudio Babiloni*, Xianghong Arakaki, Hamed Azami, Karim Bennys, Katarzyna Blinowska, Laura Bonanni, Ana Bujan, Maria C. Carrillo, Andrzej Cichocki, Jaisalmer de Frutos-Lucas, Claudio Del Percio, Bruno Dubois, Rebecca Edelmayer, Gary Egan, Stephane Epelbaum, Javier Escudero, Alan Evans, Francesca Farina, Keith Fargo, Alberto FernándezRaffaele Ferri, Giovanni Frisoni, Harald Hampel, Michael G. Harrington, Vesna Jelic, Jaeseung Jeong, Yang Jiang, Maciej Kaminski, Voyko Kavcic, Kerry Kilborn, Sanjeev Kumar, Alice Lam, Lew Lim, Roberta Lizio, David Lopez, Susanna Lopez, Brendan Lucey, Fernando Maestú, William J. McGeown, Ian McKeith, Davide Vito Moretti, Flavio Nobili, Giuseppe Noce, John Olichney, Marco Onofrj, Ricardo Osorio, Mario Parra-Rodriguez, Tarek Rajji, Petra Ritter, Andrea Soricelli, Fabrizio Stocchi, Ioannis Tarnanas, John Paul Taylor, Stefan Teipel, Federico Tucci, Mitchell Valdes-Sosa, Pedro Valdes-Sosa, Marco Weiergräber, Gorsev Yener, Bahar Guntekin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


The Electrophysiology Professional Interest Area (EPIA) and Global Brain Consortium endorsed recommendations on candidate electroencephalography (EEG) measures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. The Panel reviewed the field literature. As most consistent findings, AD patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia showed abnormalities in peak frequency, power, and “interrelatedness” at posterior alpha (8-12 Hz) and widespread delta (< 4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) rhythms in relation to disease progression and interventions. The following consensus statements were subscribed: (1) Standardization of instructions to patients, resting state EEG (rsEEG) recording methods, and selection of artifact-free rsEEG periods are needed; (2) power density and “interrelatedness” rsEEG measures (e.g., directed transfer function, phase lag index, linear lagged connectivity, etc.) at delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands may be use for stratification of AD patients and monitoring of disease progression and intervention; and (3) international multisectoral initiatives are mandatory for regulatory purposes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1528-1553
Number of pages26
JournalAlzheimer's and Dementia
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • biomarkers
  • clinical trials
  • dementia
  • electroencephalography (EEG)
  • eyes-closed resting state condition
  • The Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health Policy
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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