Measuring anxiety after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Anxiety item bank and linkage with GAD-7

Pamela A. Kisala, David S. Tulsky*, Claire Z. Kalpakjian, Allen W. Heinemann, Ryan T. Pohlig, Adam Carle, Seung W. Choi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test to assess anxiety symptoms in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric, and create a statistical linkage with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7, a widely used anxiety measure. Design: Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods; large-scale item calibration field testing; confirmatory factor analysis; graded response model item response theory analyses; statistical linking techniques to transform scores to a PROMIS metric; and linkage with the GAD-7. Setting: Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants: Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures: Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Anxiety Item Bank Results: Seven hundred sixteen individuals with traumatic SCI completed 38 items assessing anxiety, 17 of which were PROMIS items. After 13 items (including 2 PROMIS items) were removed, factor analyses confirmed unidimensionality. Item response theory analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 25 items (15 from PROMIS). The observed Pearson correlation between the SCI-QOL Anxiety and GAD-7 scores was 0.67. Conclusions: The SCI-QOL Anxiety item bank demonstrates excellent psychometric properties and is available as a computer adaptive test or short form for research and clinical applications. SCI-QOL Anxiety scores have been transformed to the PROMIS metric and we provide a method to link SCI-QOL Anxiety scores with those of the GAD-7.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)315-325
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Volume38
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2015

Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • Health-related quality of life
  • Outcomes assessment (healthcare)
  • Patient reported outcomes
  • Spinal cord injuries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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