This paper presents and compares several methods of measuring continuous baseline covariate imbalance in clinical trial data. Simulations illustrate that though the t-test is an inappropriate method of assessing continuous baseline covariate imbalance, the test statistic itself is a robust measure in capturing imbalance in continuous covariate distributions. Guidelines to assess effects of imbalance on bias, type I error rate and power for hypothesis test for treatment effect on continuous outcomes are presented, and the benefit of covariate-adjusted analysis (ANCOVA) is also illustrated.
- clinical trial
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistics and Probability
- Health Information Management