Measuring depression after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL depression item bank and linkage with PHQ-9

David S. Tulsky*, Pamela A. Kisala, Claire Z. Kalpakjian, Charles H. Bombardier, Ryan T. Pohlig, Allen W. Heinemann, Adam Carle, Seung W. Choi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To develop a calibrated spinal cord injury-quality of life (SCI-QOL) item bank, computer adaptive test (CAT), and short form to assess depressive symptoms experienced by individuals with SCI, transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric, and create a crosswalk to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. Design: We used grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory (IRT) analyses, and statistical linking techniques to transform scores to a PROMIS metric and to provide a crosswalk with the PHQ-9. Setting: Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants: Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures: Spinal Cord Injury - Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Depression Item Bank Results: Individuals with SCI were involved in all phases of SCI-QOL development. A sample of 716 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 35 items assessing depression, 18 of which were PROMIS items. After removing 7 non-PROMIS items, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. We used a graded response IRT model to estimate slopes and thresholds for the 28 retained items. The SCI-QOL Depression measure correlated 0.76 with the PHQ-9. Conclusions: The SCI-QOL Depression item bank provides a reliable and sensitive measure of depressive symptoms with scores reported in terms of general population norms. We provide a crosswalk to the PHQ-9 to facilitate comparisons between measures. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a short form and is suitable for research and clinical applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)335-346
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Volume38
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2015

Keywords

  • Depression
  • Health-related quality of life
  • Outcomes assessment (healthcare)
  • Patient reported outcomes
  • Spinal cord injuries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Measuring depression after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL depression item bank and linkage with PHQ-9'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this