Measuring fatigue and other anemia-related symptoms with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) measurement system

Suzanne B. Yellen*, David F. Cella, Kimberly Webster, Carol Blendowski, Edward Kaplan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1028 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire assessing fatigue and anemia-related concerns in people with cancer. Using the 28-item Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) questionnaire as a base, 20 additional questions related to the symptoms and concerns of patients with anemia were developed. Thirteen of these 20 questions dealt with fatigue, while the remaining 7 covered other concerns related to anemia. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 anemic oncology patients and 5 oncology experts, two instruments were produced: The FACT- Fatigue (FACT-F), consisting of the FACT-G plus 13 fatigue items, and the FACT-Anemia (FACT-An), consisting of the FACT-F plus 7 nonfatigue items. These measures were, in turn, tested on a second sample of 50 cancer patients with hemoglobin levels ranging from 7 to 15.9 g/dL. The 41-item FACT-F and the 48 item FACT-An scores were found to be stable (test-retest r = 0.87 for both) and internally consistent (coefficient alpha range = 0.95-0.96). The symptom-specific subscales also showed good stability (test-retest r range = 0.84-0.90), and the Fatigue subscale showed strong internal consistency (coefficient alpha range = 0.93-0.95). Internal consistency of the miscellaneous nonfatigue items was lower but acceptable (alpha range = 0.59- 0.70), particularly in light of their strong relationship to patient-rated performance status and hemoglobin level. Convergent and discriminant validity testing revealed a significant positive relationship with other known measures of fatigue, a significant negative relationship with vigor, and a predicted lack of relationship with social desirability. The total stores of both scales differentiated patients by hemoglobin level (p < 0.05) and patient-rated performance status (p < 0.0001). The 13-item Fatigue subscale of the FACT-F and the 7 nonfatigue items of the FACT-An also differentiated patients by hemoglobin level (p < 0.05) and patient-rated performance status (p ≤ 0.001). The FACT-F and FACT-An are useful measures of quality of life in cancer treatment, adding more focus to the problems of fatigue and anemia. The Fatigue Subscale may also stand alone as a very brief, but reliable and valid measure of fatigue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-74
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 1997

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Fatigue
Anemia
Neoplasms
Therapeutics
Hemoglobins
Social Desirability
Quality of Life
Interviews

Keywords

  • Anemia
  • cancer
  • fatigue
  • measurement
  • quality of life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

@article{deb2ecfd65734b8fa9480a12d5fe1401,
title = "Measuring fatigue and other anemia-related symptoms with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) measurement system",
abstract = "This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire assessing fatigue and anemia-related concerns in people with cancer. Using the 28-item Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) questionnaire as a base, 20 additional questions related to the symptoms and concerns of patients with anemia were developed. Thirteen of these 20 questions dealt with fatigue, while the remaining 7 covered other concerns related to anemia. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 anemic oncology patients and 5 oncology experts, two instruments were produced: The FACT- Fatigue (FACT-F), consisting of the FACT-G plus 13 fatigue items, and the FACT-Anemia (FACT-An), consisting of the FACT-F plus 7 nonfatigue items. These measures were, in turn, tested on a second sample of 50 cancer patients with hemoglobin levels ranging from 7 to 15.9 g/dL. The 41-item FACT-F and the 48 item FACT-An scores were found to be stable (test-retest r = 0.87 for both) and internally consistent (coefficient alpha range = 0.95-0.96). The symptom-specific subscales also showed good stability (test-retest r range = 0.84-0.90), and the Fatigue subscale showed strong internal consistency (coefficient alpha range = 0.93-0.95). Internal consistency of the miscellaneous nonfatigue items was lower but acceptable (alpha range = 0.59- 0.70), particularly in light of their strong relationship to patient-rated performance status and hemoglobin level. Convergent and discriminant validity testing revealed a significant positive relationship with other known measures of fatigue, a significant negative relationship with vigor, and a predicted lack of relationship with social desirability. The total stores of both scales differentiated patients by hemoglobin level (p < 0.05) and patient-rated performance status (p < 0.0001). The 13-item Fatigue subscale of the FACT-F and the 7 nonfatigue items of the FACT-An also differentiated patients by hemoglobin level (p < 0.05) and patient-rated performance status (p ≤ 0.001). The FACT-F and FACT-An are useful measures of quality of life in cancer treatment, adding more focus to the problems of fatigue and anemia. The Fatigue Subscale may also stand alone as a very brief, but reliable and valid measure of fatigue.",
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Measuring fatigue and other anemia-related symptoms with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) measurement system. / Yellen, Suzanne B.; Cella, David F.; Webster, Kimberly; Blendowski, Carol; Kaplan, Edward.

In: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Vol. 13, No. 2, 01.02.1997, p. 63-74.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measuring fatigue and other anemia-related symptoms with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) measurement system

AU - Yellen, Suzanne B.

AU - Cella, David F.

AU - Webster, Kimberly

AU - Blendowski, Carol

AU - Kaplan, Edward

PY - 1997/2/1

Y1 - 1997/2/1

N2 - This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire assessing fatigue and anemia-related concerns in people with cancer. Using the 28-item Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) questionnaire as a base, 20 additional questions related to the symptoms and concerns of patients with anemia were developed. Thirteen of these 20 questions dealt with fatigue, while the remaining 7 covered other concerns related to anemia. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 anemic oncology patients and 5 oncology experts, two instruments were produced: The FACT- Fatigue (FACT-F), consisting of the FACT-G plus 13 fatigue items, and the FACT-Anemia (FACT-An), consisting of the FACT-F plus 7 nonfatigue items. These measures were, in turn, tested on a second sample of 50 cancer patients with hemoglobin levels ranging from 7 to 15.9 g/dL. The 41-item FACT-F and the 48 item FACT-An scores were found to be stable (test-retest r = 0.87 for both) and internally consistent (coefficient alpha range = 0.95-0.96). The symptom-specific subscales also showed good stability (test-retest r range = 0.84-0.90), and the Fatigue subscale showed strong internal consistency (coefficient alpha range = 0.93-0.95). Internal consistency of the miscellaneous nonfatigue items was lower but acceptable (alpha range = 0.59- 0.70), particularly in light of their strong relationship to patient-rated performance status and hemoglobin level. Convergent and discriminant validity testing revealed a significant positive relationship with other known measures of fatigue, a significant negative relationship with vigor, and a predicted lack of relationship with social desirability. The total stores of both scales differentiated patients by hemoglobin level (p < 0.05) and patient-rated performance status (p < 0.0001). The 13-item Fatigue subscale of the FACT-F and the 7 nonfatigue items of the FACT-An also differentiated patients by hemoglobin level (p < 0.05) and patient-rated performance status (p ≤ 0.001). The FACT-F and FACT-An are useful measures of quality of life in cancer treatment, adding more focus to the problems of fatigue and anemia. The Fatigue Subscale may also stand alone as a very brief, but reliable and valid measure of fatigue.

AB - This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire assessing fatigue and anemia-related concerns in people with cancer. Using the 28-item Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) questionnaire as a base, 20 additional questions related to the symptoms and concerns of patients with anemia were developed. Thirteen of these 20 questions dealt with fatigue, while the remaining 7 covered other concerns related to anemia. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 anemic oncology patients and 5 oncology experts, two instruments were produced: The FACT- Fatigue (FACT-F), consisting of the FACT-G plus 13 fatigue items, and the FACT-Anemia (FACT-An), consisting of the FACT-F plus 7 nonfatigue items. These measures were, in turn, tested on a second sample of 50 cancer patients with hemoglobin levels ranging from 7 to 15.9 g/dL. The 41-item FACT-F and the 48 item FACT-An scores were found to be stable (test-retest r = 0.87 for both) and internally consistent (coefficient alpha range = 0.95-0.96). The symptom-specific subscales also showed good stability (test-retest r range = 0.84-0.90), and the Fatigue subscale showed strong internal consistency (coefficient alpha range = 0.93-0.95). Internal consistency of the miscellaneous nonfatigue items was lower but acceptable (alpha range = 0.59- 0.70), particularly in light of their strong relationship to patient-rated performance status and hemoglobin level. Convergent and discriminant validity testing revealed a significant positive relationship with other known measures of fatigue, a significant negative relationship with vigor, and a predicted lack of relationship with social desirability. The total stores of both scales differentiated patients by hemoglobin level (p < 0.05) and patient-rated performance status (p < 0.0001). The 13-item Fatigue subscale of the FACT-F and the 7 nonfatigue items of the FACT-An also differentiated patients by hemoglobin level (p < 0.05) and patient-rated performance status (p ≤ 0.001). The FACT-F and FACT-An are useful measures of quality of life in cancer treatment, adding more focus to the problems of fatigue and anemia. The Fatigue Subscale may also stand alone as a very brief, but reliable and valid measure of fatigue.

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