Measuring grit: A German validation and a domain-specific approach to grit

Fabian T.C. Schmidt, Johanna Fleckenstein, Jan Retelsdorf, Lauren Eskreis-Winkler, Jens Möller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

105 Scopus citations


The construct grit originates from positive psychology and describes an individual's tendency to persistently pursue long-term goals despite challenges or obstacles. Previous research has shown that domain-general grit is a predictor of educational and vocational success. The present research aimed to establish and validate a German version of the Short Grit Scale by Duckworth and Quinn (2009), named the BISS-8 (Beharrlichkeit and Beständiges Interesse) Scale, and to test for the domain specificity of grit in an educational context. We conducted three studies to investigate the BISS-8 Scale: in Study 1 (N = 525 university students) confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) replicated a two-dimensional higher-order structure for the scale. Study 2 (N = 173 university students) investigated the correlations of grit with external criteria such as grade point average (GPA), generalized self-efficacy, general academic self-concept, and personality traits. Finally, in Study 3 (N = 271 high school students), we found differential correlations with school achievement for domain-specific grit. Moreover, the validity of the BISS-8 Scale was also supported for adolescents by replicating the measurement model. All in all, our results indicate the validity of the BISS-8 Scale and show the importance to account for grit in different domains.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)436-447
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychological Assessment
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2019


  • BISS-8 Scale
  • Domain-specific grit
  • Grit
  • Perseverance
  • Validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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