Measuring participation enfranchisement

Allen W. Heinemann, Jin Shei Lai, Susan Magasi, Joy Hammel, John D. Corrigan, Jennifer A. Bogner, Gale G. Whiteneck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

49 Scopus citations


Objective: To reflect the perspectives of rehabilitation stakeholders in a measure of participation enfranchisement that can be used by people with and without disabilities. Design Survey. Setting Community settings. Participants We pilot-tested a draft instrument with 326 adults who had sustained stroke, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, or other disabling condition, as well as a general population sample. We administered a revised version of the instrument to a statewide sample drawn from the 2006 Colorado Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System that included persons with (N=461) and without (N=451) self-identified activity limitations. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Participation enfranchisement. Results We used multidimensional scaling, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), followed by rating scale analysis to evaluate the psychometric properties of the instrument. EFA identified 3 participation enfranchisement factors that describe perceived choice and control, contributing to one's community, and feeling valued; the factors were supported marginally by CFA. Rating scale analysis revealed marginal person separation and no misfitting items. Conclusions Participation enfranchisement constitutes a new, previously unmeasured aspect of participationone that addresses subjective perceptions rather than objective performancewith items that are clearly distinct from more generalized satisfaction with participation. The 19 enfranchisement items describe aspects of participation that may prove useful in characterizing longer-term rehabilitation outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)564-571
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2011


  • Patient participation
  • Psychometrics
  • Rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation

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    Heinemann, A. W., Lai, J. S., Magasi, S., Hammel, J., Corrigan, J. D., Bogner, J. A., & Whiteneck, G. G. (2011). Measuring participation enfranchisement. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 92(4), 564-571.