The paper suggests a minimum set of abiotic and biotic threshold indicators and progress indicators for forest landscape restoration (FLR), then also briefly discusses progress indicators of pressures and project outputs. FLR aims to restore multiple functions of forests at a landscape scale. It is predicated on the hypothesis that restoration produces enabling conditions for ecosystem services, including regulating services such as carbon sequestration and pollination, and provisioning services such as food and energy. As FLR gains greater uptake, it is increasingly important to monitor progress. The types of indicators required are influenced by the degree of forest loss and degradation. To measure the status of land under restoration, one or more abiotic and biotic threshold indicators are required, measuring the return of enabling conditions for restoration (soil quality, water, etc.), along with progress indicators measuring the reemergence of the ecosystem services. Although all elements of the proposed monitoring framework are well known, compiling them into a coherent system, suitable for application in a wide range of conditions, will take much further development.
- ecosystem functions
- ecosystem services
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Nature and Landscape Conservation