Medicare Expenditures by Race/Ethnicity After Hospitalization for Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

Boback Ziaeian, Paul A. Heidenreich, Haolin Xu, Adam D. DeVore, Roland A. Matsouaka, Adrian F. Hernandez, Deepak L. Bhatt, Clyde W. Yancy, Gregg C. Fonarow*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze cumulative Medicare expenditures at index admission and after discharge by race or ethnicity. Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a growing proportion of heart failure (HF) admissions. Research on health care expenditures for patients with HFpEF is limited. Methods: Records of patients discharged from the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry between 2006 and 2014 were linked to Medicare data. The primary outcome was unadjusted payments for acute care services. Comparisons between race/ethnic groups were made using generalized linear mixed models. Cost ratios were reported by race/ethnicity, and adjustments were made sequentially for patient characteristics, hospital factors, and regional socioeconomic status. Results: Median Medicare costs for index hospitalizations were $7,241 for the entire cohort, $7,049 for whites, $8,269 for blacks, $8,808 for Hispanics, $8,477 for Asians, and $8,963 for other races. Median costs at 30 days for readmitted patients were $9,803 and $17,456 for the entire cohort at 1-year. No significant differences were seen in index admission cost ratios by race/ethnicity. At 30 days among readmitted patients, costs were 9% higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1% to 17%; p = 0.020) for blacks in the fully adjusted model than whites. At 1 year, costs were 14% higher (95% CI: 9% to 18%; p < 0.001) for blacks, 7% higher (95% CI: 0% to 14%; p = 0.041) for Hispanics, and 24% higher (95% CI: 8% to 42%; p = 0.003) for patients of other races. No significant differences between white and Asian expenditures were noted. Conclusions: Minority patients with HFpEF have greater acute care service costs. Further research of improving care delivery is needed to reduce acute care use for vulnerable populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)388-397
Number of pages10
JournalJACC: Heart Failure
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2018


  • BMI
  • CMS
  • diastolic heart failure
  • health care costs
  • health care disparities
  • heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
  • hospital readmissions
  • hospitalization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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