Medicine in the Fourth Dimension

Christopher R. Cederroth, Urs Albrecht, Joseph Bass, Steven A. Brown, J. Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen, Frederic Gachon, Carla B. Green, Michael H. Hastings, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, John B. Hogenesch, Francis Lévi, Andrew Loudon, Gabriella B. Lundkvist, Johanna H. Meijer, Michael Rosbash, Joseph S. Takahashi, Michael Young, Barbara Canlon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

204 Scopus citations


The importance of circadian biology has rarely been considered in pre-clinical studies, and even more when translating to the bedside. Circadian biology is becoming a critical factor for improving drug efficacy and diminishing drug toxicity. Indeed, there is emerging evidence showing that some drugs are more effective at nighttime than daytime, whereas for others it is the opposite. This suggests that the biology of the target cell will determine how an organ will respond to a drug at a specific time of the day, thus modulating pharmacodynamics. Thus, it is now time that circadian factors become an integral part of translational research. In this Perspective, Cederroth et al. discuss the importance of considering circadian mechanisms when performing preclinical research with the aim of translating the findings to the clinic. By integrating chronopharmacology into clinical practice, it may be possible to minimize adverse side effects and maximize therapeutic efficacy, ultimately improving patient care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)238-250
Number of pages13
JournalCell Metabolism
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 6 2019


  • ADME
  • chronotherapy
  • circadian biology
  • clock genes
  • drug metabolism
  • translation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology
  • Cell Biology


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