A 5-month-old girl with clinical features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), including a repaired omphalocele, an earlobe crease, enlarged adrenal glands, renal size discrepancy, and hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia, presented with a 1.9-cm liver nodule. Markedly increased serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels (1 060 000 mg/L), highly suspicious for hepatoblastoma, were detected, and resection of the liver mass was performed. Histologic sections showed features characteristic of a mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver (MHL). No features of embryonal or fetal hepatocellular proliferation or heterologous stromal components were noted. By immunohistochemistry, the hepatocytes expressed AFP, but no nuclear accumulation of β-catenin was present. Electron microscopy revealed normal, mature hepatocytes. Here we address the diagnostic challenge of the uncommon association of MHL and BWS in the setting of markedly elevated serum AFP levels. In addition, we analyze the unusual pancreatic lesion (focal endocrine adenomatosis) leading to severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in a patient with possible BWS. We emphasize that MHLs may present with markedly increased serum AFP levels, mimicking hepatoblastomas, and may also be part of the expanding spectrum of findings of BWS.
- Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
- Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia
- Mesenchymal liver hamartoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine