Meta-analysis of the likelihood of FOXC1 expression in early-and late-stage tumors

Tsutomu Kume*, Tarek Shackour

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Aberrations in the expression of the transcription factor forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) have been linked to a number of malignancies. Here, we characterized the relationship between FOXC1 and cancer progression by conducting a meta-analysis of studies that reported the frequency of FOXC1 expression in tumors of different stages (T1, T2, T3, T4). Materials and Method: Relevant articles were retrieved from the Medline database by searching for the terms "FOXC1" and "cancer"; then, the retrieved articles were reviewed individually, and studies that were of multivariate cohort design, evaluated FOXC1 expression via immunohistochemical staining, and assessed the relationship between FOXC1 expression and cancer T-stage were included in our meta-analysis. Results: Our search terms identified 128 studies, 5 of which met all inclusion criteria. A total of 850 tumor samples were evaluated in the 5 studies; 452 samples were from early-stage (T1-T2) tumors, and 398 were from late-stage (T3-T4) tumors. FOXC1 was expressed in 60.7% (516/850) of all samples, in 54.6% (247/452) of early-stage tumor samples, and in 67.5% (269/398) of late-stage tumor samples. When calculated relative to early-stage samples, the pooled risk for FOXC1 expression in late-stage samples was 1.238 (95% CI = 1.061-1.444, p = 0.007). Conclusions: The results from our meta-analysis of 5 studies indicate that FOXC1 is 23.8% more likely to be expressed in late-stage tumors than in early-stage tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36625-36630
Number of pages6
Issue number93
StatePublished - Nov 1 2018


  • Cancer
  • FOXC1
  • T-Stage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology


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