Meta-Analysis: Theory

Larry Vernon Hedges*, Arend M Kuyper

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Meta-analysis is the combination of estimates across studies for the purposes of drawing general conclusions. Meta-analysis usually summarizes the results of each study by an index of effect size and estimates of effect sizes are combined across studies. Effect sizes are often combined by computing a weighted average to estimate the mean effect size. In that case, assessments of the possible heterogeneity of effects are important. Variation of effects across studies can be studied using linear models (so-called metaregression).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9780080970875
ISBN (Print)9780080970868
StatePublished - Mar 26 2015


  • Bayesian methods
  • Confidence intervals
  • Effect size
  • Estimation
  • Hierarchical linear models
  • Hypothesis testing
  • Maximum likelihood estimation
  • Meta-analysis
  • Multilevel models
  • Research reviews
  • Research synthesis
  • Robust variance estimation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)


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