Metallurgical alloy approach to two-dimensional supramolecular materials

Adam Dannenhoffer, Hiroaki Sai, Eric P. Bruckner, Luka Ðorđević, Ashwin Narayanan, Yang Yang, Xuedan Ma, Liam C. Palmer, Samuel I. Stupp*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Alloys are normally mixtures of metallic elements used to search for superior functional properties compared with their individual components. Although a quintessential approach to better materials in metallurgy, the concept of alloying has been expanded to other inorganic materials and covalent polymers. We report here on alloy formation of small organic molecules structured as amphiphilic chromophores in water. Using X-ray scattering, microscopy, and optical spectroscopy, we unambiguously demonstrate the formation of supramolecular alloys with changes in physical, photophysical, and mechanical properties. Additionally, we identify single-crystalline, two-dimensional supramolecular polymers containing multiple molecular species, analogous to intermetallic compounds. The mechanism of alloy formation suggests the possibility of controlled growth in these supramolecular assemblies to create emergent functional structures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)170-180
Number of pages11
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 12 2023


  • SDG9: Industry innovation and infrastructure
  • living supramolecular polymerization
  • seeded growth
  • supramolecular alloys
  • supramolecular polymers
  • two-dimensional crystals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Materials Chemistry


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