Microalbuminuria as a risk predictor in diabetes: The continuing saga

George L. Bakris*, Mark Molitch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

122 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE The rationale for this study was to review the data on microalbuminuria (MA), an amount of albumin in the urine of 30-299mg/day, in patients with diabetes in the context of cardiovascular risk and development of kidney disease. The objective was to reviewthe pathophysiology ofMA in patientswith diabetes and reviewthe data from trials regarding MA in the context of risk for cardiovascular events or kidney disease progression. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data sources were all PubMed-referenced articles in English-language peerreviewed journals since 1964. Studies selected had to have a minimum 1-year follow-up and be either a randomized trial linking MA to cardiovascular or kidney disease outcome, a meta-analysis/systematic review, or a large observational cohort study. RESULTS The data suggest that MA is a risk marker for cardiovascular events and possibly for kidney disease development. Its presence alone, however, does not indicate established kidney disease, especially if the estimated glomerular filtration rate is >60 mL/min/1.73 m2. An increase in MA, when blood pressure and other risk factors are controlled, portends a poor prognosis for kidney outcomes over time. Early in the course of diabetes, aggressive risk factor management focused on glycemic and blood pressure goals is important to delay kidney disease development and reduce cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSIONS MA is a marker of cardiovascular disease risk and should be monitored per guidelines once or twice a year for progression to macroalbuminuria and kidney disease development, especially if plasma glucose, lipids, and blood pressure are at guideline goals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)867-875
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetes care
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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