Background Arterial restenosis after vascular surgery is a common cause of midterm restenosis and treatment failure. Herein, we aim to investigate the role of microbe-derived butyrate, FFAR2 (free fatty acid receptor 2), and FFAR3 (free fatty acid receptor 3) in mitigating neointimal hyperplasia development in remodeling murine arteries after injury. Methods and Results C57BL/6 mice treated with oral vancomycin before unilateral femoral wire injury to deplete gut microbiota had significantly diminished serum and stool butyrate and more neointimal hyperplasia development after arterial injury, which was reversed by concomitant butyrate supplementation. Deficiency of FFAR3 but not FFAR2, both receptors for butyrate, exacerbated neointimal hyperplasia development after injury. FFAR3 deficiency was also associated with delayed recovery of the endothelial layer in vivo. FFAR3 gene expression was observed in multiple peripheral arteries, and expression was increased after arterial injury. Treatment of endothelial but not vascular smooth muscle cells with the pharmacologic FFAR3 agonist 1-methylcyclopropane carboxylate stimulated cellular migration and proliferation in scratch assays. Conclusions Our results support a protective role for butyrate and FFAR3 in the development of neointimal hyperplasia after arterial injury and delineate activation of the butyrate-FFAR3 pathway as a valuable strategy for the prevention and treatment of neointimal hyperplasia.
- neointimal hyperplasia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine