To better understand the colonization and succession of microbial communities in the built environment, we employed particle counting, 16S and ITS rRNA amplicon sequencing, and metabolomics profiling to characterize the bacterial and fungal diversity on tiles composed of four commonly used building materials. We varied the inoculating location and the available moisture to assess how these factors influence community structure, and linked community membership to the metabolic profiles of the tiles. We found significantly greater fungal growth and lower taxonomic and metabolite diversity on wet compared to dry tiles. Material played a significant role in shaping the bacterial community and the metabolic profiles, but did not influence the fungal community. Strikingly, inoculation location had a primary effect on the microbial community structure, while moisture was important in driving community succession. This provides evidence of the microbial metabolism dynamics on surface materials influenced by source of colonization and surface material type.