Microbial sensing by toll-like receptors and intracellular nucleic acid sensors

Surya Pandey, Taro Kawai*, Shizuo Akira

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

258 Scopus citations


Recognition of an invading pathogen is critical to elicit protective responses. Certain microbial structures and molecules, which are crucial for their survival and virulence, are recognized by different families of evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This recognition initiates a signaling cascade that leads to the transcription of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines to eliminate pathogens and attract immune cells, thereby perpetuating further adaptive immune responses. Considerable research on the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions has resultedinthe discovery of multifarious PRRs. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in microbial recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and intracellular nucleic acid sensors and the signaling pathways initiated by them.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbera016246
JournalCold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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