Microchemical evolution of irradiated additive-manufactured HT9

Pengyuan Xiu*, Caleb P. Massey, T. M.Kelsy Green, Stephen Taller, Dieter Isheim, Niyanth Sridharan, Kevin G. Field

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The microstructural responses under 5 MeV Fe2+ single-ion-beam irradiation of three conditions of additive-manufactured (AM) HT9 steel using a powder-based directed energy deposition (DED) technique with and without postbuild heat treatments were investigated. Besides the observed dislocation loop formation and the absence of cavities at the irradiation condition of 50 dpa at 460 °C, Ni/Si/Mn-rich precipitates are found to form in all three conditions of AM-HT9, whereas Cu-rich clusters that arise from Cu uptake from the DED process are only observed in the heat-treated conditions, and not in the as-built (ASB) condition. Coprecipitation of the Cu- and Ni/Si/Mn-rich clusters occur near defect sinks such as line dislocations and grain boundaries in the heat-treated AM-HT9. The variation in microchemical evolution can be directly linked to the starting sink strength of the 3 AM-HT9 conditions, and the ASB condition with higher sink strength suppressed the responses observed in the postbuild heat-treated specimens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number153410
JournalJournal of Nuclear Materials
StatePublished - Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Clustering
  • Ferritic-martensitic HT9 steel
  • Irradiation
  • Precipitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • General Materials Science
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering


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