Nanoparticles are rapidly emerging as promising vehicles for next-generation therapeutic delivery. These highly mobile nanomaterials exhibit large carrier capacity and excellent stability which, when combined with innate biocompatibility, have captured the focus of numerous research efforts. As such, the ability to deliver well-controlled subcellular doses of these functional nanoparticles, both for fundamental research at the single cell level and in related device manufacturing, remains a challenge. Patterning these nanomaterials on biologically compatible substrates enables both novel biological studies and nanomanufacturing avenues through precise spatial control of dosing. Delivering them directly to live cells enables further studies where transfection remains a challenge. This chapter describes a unique tool for functional nanoparticle delivery, called the Nanofountain Probe. The Nanofountain Probe is capable of both direct-write nanopatterning of these materials with sub-100-nm resolution and targeted in vitro injection to individual cells. To motivate the discussion, a brief overview of microfluidic tools developed to deliver nanoparticles is presented. We then focus on the function of the Nanofountain Probe and its application to functional nanodiamond-based biological studies and nanomanufacturing. Development and application of the Nanofountain Probe and other nanomaterial delivery systems will be critical in developing future nanoscale devices and arrays that harness these nanoparticles.
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