Microstructure and energy dispersive diffraction reconstruction of 3D patterns of crystallographic texture in a shark centrum

Stuart R. Stock*, Paul E. Morse, Michala K. Stock, Kelsey C. James, Lisa J. Natanson, Haiyan Chen, Pavel D. Shevchenko, Evan R. Maxey, Olga A. Antipova, Jun Sang Park

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Purpose: Tomography using diffracted x-rays produces reconstructions mapping quantities such as crystal lattice parameter(s), crystallite size, and crystallographic texture, information quite different from that obtained with absorption or phase contrast. Diffraction tomography is used to map an entire blue shark centrum with its double cone structure (corpora calcerea) and intermedialia (four wedges). Approach: Energy dispersive diffraction (EDD) and polychromatic synchrotron x-radiation at 6-BM-B, the Advanced Photon Source, were used. Different, properly oriented Bragg planes diffract different x-ray energies; these intensities are measured by one of ten energy-sensitive detectors. A pencil beam defines the irradiated volume, and a collimator before each energy-sensitive detector selects which portion of the irradiated column is sampled at any one time. Translating the specimen along X, Y, and Z axes produces a 3D map. Results: We report 3D maps of the integrated intensity of several bioapatite reflections from the mineralized cartilage centrum of a blue shark. The c axis reflection's integrated intensities and those of a reflection with no c axis component reveal that the cone wall's bioapatite is oriented with its c axes lateral, i.e., perpendicular to the backbone's axis, and that the wedges' bioapatite is oriented with its c axes axial. Absorption microcomputed tomography (laboratory and synchrotron) and x-ray excited x-ray fluorescence maps provide higher resolution views. Conclusion: The bioapatite in the cone walls and wedges is oriented to resist lateral and axial deflections, respectively. Mineralized tissue samples can be mapped in 3D with EDD tomography and subsequently studied by destructive methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number031504
JournalJournal of Medical Imaging
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2022


  • bioapatite
  • energy dispersive diffraction
  • microcomputed tomography
  • mineralized cartilage
  • shark
  • vertebra
  • x-ray fluorescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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