Miniaturized wireless, skin-integrated sensor networks for quantifying full-body movement behaviors and vital signs in infants

Hyoyoung Jeong, Sung Soo Kwak, Seokwoo Sohn, Jong Yoon Lee, Young Joong Lee, Megan K. O’Brien, Yoonseok Park, Raudel Avila, Jin Tae Kim, Jae Young Yoo, Masahiro Irie, Hokyung Jang, Wei Ouyang, Nicholas Shawen, Youn J. Kang, Seung Sik Kim, Andreas Tzavelis, Kun Hyuck Lee, Rachel A. Andersen, Yonggang HuangArun Jayaraman, Matthew M. Davis, Thomas Shanley, Lauren S. Wakschlag, Sheila Krogh-Jespersen, Shuai Xu, Shirley W. Ryan, Richard L. Lieber, John A. Rogers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Early identification of atypical infant movement behaviors consistent with underlying neuromotor pathologies can expedite timely enrollment in therapeutic interventions that exploit inherent neuroplasticity to promote recovery. Traditional neuromotor assessments rely on qualitative evaluations performed by specially trained personnel, mostly available in tertiary medical centers or specialized facilities. Such approaches are high in cost, require geographic proximity to advanced healthcare resources, and yield mostly qualitative insight. This paper introduces a simple, low-cost alternative in the form of a technology customized for quantitatively capturing continuous, full-body kinematics of infants during free living conditions at home or in clinical settings while simultaneously recording essential vital signs data. The system consists of a wireless network of small, flexible inertial sensors placed at strategic locations across the body and operated in a wide-bandwidth and time-synchronized fashion. The data serve as the basis for reconstructing three-dimensional motions in avatar form without the need for video recordings and associated privacy concerns, for remote visual assessments by experts. These quantitative measurements can also be presented in graphical format and analyzed with machine-learning techniques, with potential to automate and systematize traditional motor assessments. Clinical implementations with infants at low and at elevated risks for atypical neuromotor development illustrates application of this system in quantitative and semiquantitative assessments of patterns of gross motor skills, along with body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate, from long-term and follow-up measurements over a 3-mo period following birth. The engineering aspects are compatible for scaled deployment, with the potential to improve health outcomes for children worldwide via early, pragmatic detection methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2104925118
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number43
StatePublished - Oct 26 2021


  • Infants motor skill
  • Motion recapitulation
  • Movement behaviors
  • Wireless sensor networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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