Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 metastasis suppressor gene expression is inversely related to histological pattern in advancing human prostatic cancers

Hyung L. Kim, Donald J. Vander Griend, Ximing Yang, David A. Benson, Zita Dubauskas, Barbara A. Yoshida, Marina A. Chekmareva, Yayoi Ichikawa, Mitchell H. Sokoloff, Ping Zhan, Theodore Karrison, Anning Lin, Walter M. Stadler, Tomo Ichikawa, Mark A. Rubin, Carrie W. Rinker-Schaeffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Scopus citations

Abstract

We have shown recently (B. A. Yoshida et al., Cancer Res., 59: 5483-5487) that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) can suppress AT6.1 rat prostate cancer metastases in vivo. Evaluation of the expression of components of the MKK4 signaling cascade showed a loss or down-regulation of expression of MKK4 or c-Jun, a downstream mediator of MKK4, in six of eight human prostate cancer cell lines. Given these findings, we next assessed whether MKK4 dysregulation occurs during the development of clinical prostate cancer. Immunohistochemical studies showed high levels of MKK4 expression in the epithelial but not the stromal compartment of normal prostatic tissues. In neoplastic tissues, a statistically significant, direct, inverse relationship between Gleason pattern and MKK4 was established. These results demonstrate that MKK4 protein is consistently down-regulated during prostate cancer progression and support a role for dysregulation of its signaling cascade in clinical disease. To test the possibility that down-regulation of MKK4 protein is the result of allelic loss, metastatic prostate cancer lesions were examined for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) within the MKK4 locus (D17S969). These studies showed a 31% (5 of 16) LOH of MKK4 that is not associated with coding region mutations, which suggests that the nucleotide sequence of the gene in the remaining allele is infrequently mutated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2833-2837
Number of pages5
JournalCancer Research
Volume61
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 1 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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