Mixed-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures

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993 Scopus citations


The isolation of a growing number of two-dimensional (2D) materials has inspired worldwide efforts to integrate distinct 2D materials into van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. Given that any passivated, dangling-bond-free surface will interact with another through vdW forces, the vdW heterostructure concept can be extended to include the integration of 2D materials with non-2D materials that adhere primarily through non-covalent interactions. We present a succinct and critical survey of emerging mixed-dimensional (2D + nD, where n is 0, 1 or 3) heterostructure devices. By comparing and contrasting with all-2D vdW heterostructures as well as with competing conventional technologies, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for mixed-dimensional vdW heterostructures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)170-181
Number of pages12
JournalNature materials
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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