Mixing of two solutions combined by gravity drainage

R. M. Lueptow*, K. Smith, L. F. Mockros

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


A variety of medical therapies require the mixing of solutions from two separate bags before use. One scenario for the mixing is to drain the solution from one bag, into the other by gravity through a short connecting tube. The degree of mixing in the lower bag depends on the relative densities of the two solutions, the geometry of the two bags and the connecting tube, and the placement of the connecting tube. Solutions with densities differing by as much as 12% were mixed by draining the solution from an upper bag into a lower bag for a particular geometric configuration. The two solutions had different electrical conductivities, and the conductivity of the combined solution as it exited from the lower bag was used as a measure of the effectiveness of mixing. When the more dense solution was drained firm the upper bag into the less dense solution in a lower bag, mixing was very effective. The incoming jet of high density solution entrained the low density solution. Flow visualization indicated that the incoming jet penetrated to the bottom of the lower bag, and resulting large vortical structures enhanced mixing. When the less dense solution was drained from the upper bag into the more dense solution in the lower bag, mixing was lays effective. The buoyancy force reduced the momentum of the incoming jet such that it did not penetrate to the bottom of the lower bag, resulting in stratification of the solutions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)132-139
Number of pages8
JournalPDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Mixing of two solutions combined by gravity drainage'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this