Modeling chloride penetration in saturated concrete

Yunping Xi*, Zdeněk P. Bažant

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

248 Scopus citations


A mathematical model is established for chloride penetration in saturated concrete. The model takes into account various influential parameters such as water-to-cement ratio, curing time, types of cement, and aggregate content. Two material models are developed for binding capacity and chloride diffusivity, which have a dominant effect on the chloride diffusion process. The chloride binding capacity is modeled by means of the chloride adsorption isotherm. The chloride diffusivity is modeled by a composite material theory in which concrete is considered as a two-phase material with the cement phase as one phase and the aggregate as another. To take into account the effect of aggregate content, the three-phase model for diffusivity of a two-phase composite developed by Christensen is used. The diffusivity for cement past is characterized by the Kozeny-Carman model as modified by Martys et al. The influences of temperature and chloride ion concentration are also handled in the model. The model prediction agrees quite well with available test results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-65
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Materials in Civil Engineering
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials


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