Modeling multiple response processes in judgment and choice

Ulf Böckenholt*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

125 Scopus citations


In this article, I show how item response models can be used to capture multiple response processes in psychological applications. Intuitive and analytical responses, agree-disagree answers, response refusals, socially desirable responding, differential item functioning, and choices among multiple options are considered. In each of these cases, I show that the response processes can be measured via pseudoitems derived from the observed responses. The estimation of these models via standard software programs that allow for missing data is also discussed. The article concludes with two detailed applications that illustrate the prevalence of multiple response processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)665-678
Number of pages14
JournalPsychological methods
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2012


  • Choice
  • Item response models
  • Judgment
  • Missing data
  • Multiple-choice items

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Modeling multiple response processes in judgment and choice'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this