Modeling programmable drug delivery in bioelectronics with electrochemical actuation

Raudel Avila, Chenhang Li, Yeguang Xue, John A. Rogers, Yonggang Huang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Drug delivery systems featuring electrochemical actuation represent an emerging class of biomedical technology with programmable volume/flowrate capabilities for localized delivery. Recent work establishes applications in neuroscience experiments involving small animals in the context of pharmacological response. However, for programmable delivery, the available flowrate control and delivery time models fail to consider key variables of the drug delivery system-microfluidic resistance and membrane stiffness. Here we establish an analytical model that accounts for the missing variables and provides a scalable understanding of each variable influence in the physics of delivery process (i.e., maximum flowrate, delivery time). This analytical model accounts for the key parameters-initial environmental pressure, initial volume, microfluidic resistance, flexible membrane, current, and temperature- to control the delivery and bypasses numerical simulations allowing faster system optimization for different in vivo experiments. We show that the delivery process is controlled by three nondimensional parameters, and the volume/flowrate results from the proposed analytical model agree with the numerical results and experiments. These results have relevance to the many emerging applications of programmable delivery in clinical studies within the neuroscience and broader biomedical communities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2026405118
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number11
StatePublished - Mar 16 2021


  • Analytical model
  • Drug delivery
  • Electrochemical actuation
  • Flexible membrane
  • Mechanics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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