Modeling the effects of cooling rate, hydrogen content, grain refiner and modifier on microporosity formation in Al A356 alloys

James G. Conley, Julie Huang, Jo Asada, Kenji Akiba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


Cast Aluminum-Silicon alloys are used in numerous automotive and industrial weight sensitive applications because of their low density and excellent castability. The presence of trapped gas and or shrinkage pores in certain locations within castings has been shown to influence fatigue life. These micromechanical defects can be found most anywhere in a casting depending on processing conditions. A large amount of porosity located in the center of the cast material thickness may have no effect on mechanical properties or fatigue performance. A smaller, isolated pore near a surface may have a significant impact on mechanical properties. Hence, it is important to develop a comprehensive model to predict the size, location and distribution of microporosity in castings. In this work, we model the effect of various casting process parameters on microporosity formation for aluminum A356 alloy castings. The process parameters include cooling rate, hydrogen content, grain refiner and modifier. The proposed two-dimensional model predicts the size, morphology and distribution of microporosity at a given location in the casting. The method couples a mathematical model of porosity evolution with a probabilistic grain structure prediction model. The porosity evolution model is based on the simultaneous solution of the continuity and momentum equations for the metal and the mass conservation equation for the dissolved gas. The nucleation and growth of grains are simulated with a probabilistic method that uses the information from a heat transfer simulation, i.e. temperature and solid fraction, to determine the transition rules for grain evolution. The simulation results correlate well with experimental observation of porosity in cast structures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-55
Number of pages7
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering A
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jun 15 2000


  • Al A356 alloys
  • Cooling rate
  • Grain refiner
  • Hydrogen content

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Modeling the effects of cooling rate, hydrogen content, grain refiner and modifier on microporosity formation in Al A356 alloys'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this