This chapter presents information on various contraceptive methods available for men and women. Modern contraceptive methods have been in use since the introduction of the male condom in the 1600s and the cervical cap in the 1820s. Modern contraceptive techniques include sex steroid methods that affect ovulation and include oral contraceptives (OCs), injectable hormones, subdermal implants, intrauterine and intravaginal devices, and surgical sterilization. Oral contraceptive pills are the most commonly used method of reversible contraception in the United States. Non-hormonal methods of contraception include coitus interruptus, lactational amenorrhea, and Natural Family Planning (NFP), while several barrier methods such as diaphragms, sponge-type barrier contraceptives, female condom, cervical caps, and spermicides are also available. Male contraception has been primarily characterized by the use of barrier and natural family planning regimens along with vasectomy. The development of effective hormonal or antispermatogenetic regimens has been limited by reduced efficacy or profound adverse event profiles.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)