Modification of catalytic properties of Hollandite manganese oxide by Ag intercalation for oxidative acetalization of ethanol to diethoxyethane

Jie Ding, Liang Huang, Guojing Ji, Yuewu Zeng, Zhaoxu Chen, Eric G. Eddings, Maohong Fan*, Qin Zhong, Harold H. Kung

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The effect of addition of Ag to the catalytic properties of hollandite manganese oxide (HMO) was investigated for the oxidative acetalization of ethanol to diethoxyethane. Based on analysis with HRTEM, XRD, and EXAFS, Ag introduced onto HMO by deposition/precipitation was found to be present in different forms in the final catalyst depending on the calcination temperature. It could exist as nanoparticles on the outside surface of HMO nanorods for samples calcined at 60 °C, and as Ag atoms intercalated into the tunnels of the HMO structure for samples calcined at 500 °C. NH3 desorption results showed that intercalation of Ag resulted in stronger Lewis acidic sites on HMO, which DFT computational results suggested to be due to Ag-induced electron redistribution in the HMO framework. The intercalation of Ag atoms also made the HMO more easily reducible by lowering the H2 reduction temperature from 500 to 200 °C. Consequently, the sample with intercalated Ag was more active for ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, achieving nearly 100% conversion of ethanol and acetaldehyde by 360 °C, and acetalization of acetaldehyde with ethanol to produce diethoxyethane selectively, resulting in 93.5% diethoxyethane yield, which was 10% higher than with samples containing Ag nanoparticles on HMO. This study demonstrated a little-studied phenomenon in which a metal alters the catalytic properties of an oxide electronically but not structurally and without direct participation in the reaction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5347-5357
Number of pages11
JournalACS Catalysis
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 7 2021


  • Diethoxyethane
  • Hollandite
  • Manganese oxide
  • Metal intercalation
  • Oxidative acetalization
  • Silver

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)


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