Modular organization of motor behavior in the frog's spinal cord

Emilio Bizzi*, Simon F. Giszter, Eric Loeb, Fernando A. Mussa-Ivaldi, Philippe Saltiel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

103 Scopus citations


The complex issue of translating the planning of arm movements into muscle forces is discussed in relation to the recent discovery of structures in the spinal cord. These structures contain circuitry that, when activated, produce precisely balanced contractions in groups of muscles. These synergistic contractions generate forces that direct the limb toward an equilibrium point in space. Remarkably, the force outputs, produced by activating different spinal-cord structures, sum vectorially. This vectorial combination of motor outputs might be a mechanism for producing a vast repertoire of motor behaviors in a simple manner.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)442-446
Number of pages5
JournalTrends in Neurosciences
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Modular organization of motor behavior in the frog's spinal cord'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this