The modulation effects of hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), a differentiation-inducing agent, on growth and differentiation of cells from human malignant glioma cell line SHG-44 were studied. At cytostatic doses (2.5 mM, 5 mM, 7.5 mM, and 10 mM for 15 days). HMBA exerted a marked inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Exposure to HMBA (5 mM and 10 mM for 12 days) also resulted in an accumulation of cells in G1/G1 phase and a decrease of cells in S phase as analyzed by flow cytometry. The reversible effects of 7.5 mM HMBA and 10 mM HMBA on cell proliferation and 10 mM HMBA on disruption of cell cycle distribution were observed when HMBA was removed from culture media on Day 6 and replaced with HMBA-free media. Colony- forming efficiency (CFE) in soft agar was remarkably decreased by HMBA (2.5 mM, 5 mM, 7.5 mM, and 10 mM for 14 days), and in 7.5 mM HMBA- and 10 mM HMBA- treated cells, the CFEs were reduced to 25% and 12.5%, respectively, of that in untreated cells. Cells treated with HMBA (5 mM and 10 mM for 15 days) remained tumorigenic in athymic nude mice, but the growth rates of the xenografts were much slower than those in the control group. The effects of HMBA on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, CFE, and growth of xenografts were dose dependent. A more mature phenotype was confirmed by the morphological changes from spindle shape to large polygonal stellate shape and remarkably elevated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in cells exposed to HMBA (5 mM, 10 mM for 15 days). Our results showed that a more differentiated phenotype with marked growth arrest was induced in SHG- 44 cells by HMBA.
- growth-induced differentiation
- hexamethylene bisacetamide
- human glioma cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology