This paper introduces approaches that combine micro/nanomolding, or nanoimprinting, techniques with proximity optical phase mask lithographic methods to form three dimensional (3D) nanostructures in thick, transparent layers of photopolymers. The results demonstrate three strategies of this type, where molded relief structures in these photopolymers represent (i) fine (<1μm) features that serve as the phase masks for their own exposure, (ii) coarse features (>1 μm) that are used with phase masks to provide access to large structure dimensions, and (iii) fine structures that are used together phase masks to achieve large, multilevel phase modulations. Several examples are provided, together with optical modeling of the fabrication process and the transmission properties of certain of the fabricated structures. These approaches provide capabilities in 3D fabrication that complement those of other techniques, with potential applications in photonics, microfluidics, drug delivery and other areas.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics