Molecular architecture of the goodpasture autoantigen in anti-GBM nephritis

Vadim Pedchenko, Olga Bondar, Agnes B. Fogo, Roberto Vanacore, Paul Voziyan, A. Richard Kitching, Jörgen Wieslander, Clifford Kashtan, Dorin Bogdan Borza, Eric G. Neilson, Curtis B. Wilson, Billy G. Hudson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

208 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Goodpasture's disease, circulating autoantibodies bind to the noncollagenous-1 (NC1) domain of type IV collagen in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The specificity and molecular architecture of epitopes of tissue-bound autoantibodies are unknown. Alport's post-transplantation nephritis, which is mediated by alloantibodies against the GBM, occurs after kidney transplantation in some patients with Alport's syndrome. We compared the conformations of the antibody epitopes in Goodpasture's disease and Alport's post-transplantation nephritis with the intention of finding clues to the pathogenesis of anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. METHODS: We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine the specificity of circulating autoantibodies and kidney-bound antibodies to NC1 domains. Circulating antibodies were analyzed in 57 patients with Goodpasture's disease, and kidney-bound antibodies were analyzed in 14 patients with Goodpasture's disease and 2 patients with Alport's post-transplantation nephritis. The molecular architecture of key epitope regions was deduced with the use of chimeric molecules and a three-dimensional model of the α345NC1 hexamer. RESULTS: In patients with Goodpasture's disease, both autoantibodies to the α3NC1 monomer and antibodies to the α5NC1 monomer (and fewer to the α4NC1 monomer) were bound in the kidneys and lungs, indicating roles for the α3NC1 and α5NC1 monomers as autoantigens. High antibody titers at diagnosis of anti-GBM disease were associated with ultimate loss of renal function. The antibodies bound to distinct epitopes encompassing region EA in the α5NC1 monomer and regions EA and EB in the α3NC1 monomer, but they did not bind to the native cross-linked α345NC1 hexamer. In contrast, in patients with Alport's post-transplantation nephritis, alloantibodies bound to the EA region of the α5NC1 subunit in the intact hexamer, and binding decreased on dissociation. CONCLUSIONS: The development of Goodpasture's disease may be considered an autoimmune "conformeropathy" that involves perturbation of the quaternary structure of the α345NC1 hexamer, inducing a pathogenic conformational change in the α3NC1 and α5NC1 subunits, which in turn elicits an autoimmune response. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)343-354
Number of pages12
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume363
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 22 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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